Each species has its own aroma and effect. This unique signature is not only the result of the cannabinoids, but also of the lesser known molecules: flavonoids, terpenes and terpenoids.

Some types work anesthetizing, some stimulating, some take your mind to wonderland, some are perfectly suited as natural pain relief, others pour a bucket of inspiration empty in your head and others deliver everything a bit. But it is not only the cannabinoids that are responsible for these different effects: Less known molecules, known as flavonoids and terpenoids, play a major role in the overall aroma and effects of the species.

Often the overall quality of a species is measured at the THC level and of course a few puffs of some good weed with a lot of THC will make you high. But it reveals an approach that exaggerates attention only on one component, in this case THC. The same fixation can be found in the pharmacological world; the obsession with the “active ingredient”. Whether it is THC or Vitamin C; much of the work of the last century involved isolating the active ingredient from the natural environment. And there are good reasons for this: it ensures a more precise dosage and standardization of the quality. Research is easier with only one component, excluding complex natural systems.

How long does cannabis remain visible?

Cannabis (hash or weed) of all drugs can be found in the body for the longest time. It’s difficult to typical to find out how long does weed stay in urine. Hash and weed are demonstrable in the urine from 5 days to 3 weeks (in extreme cases, even up to a month), depending on how much someone has used. The urine is then tested for degradation of cannabis. If these breakdown substances are present in the urine, the tester knows that cannabis has been used. The remaining drugs can be detected in the body within a few days to 1 week.

WHAT ARE FLAVANONOIDS?

The unique smell and taste of a cannabis strain is partly produced by its flavonoids, the aromatic molecules. Some flavonoids, such as quercetin, luteolin and kaemferol, occur naturally in many different plants. But flavonoids that are unique to cannabis are called cannaflavins, which not only smell good, but are also pharmacologically active. Cannaflavin A, for example, reduces inflammation by inhibiting molecule PGE-2 and does it 30 times more effectively than Aspirin.

Like CBD, flavonoids also modulate the effects of THC. Through complex biochemical mechanisms, flavonoids work at various locations in the body. Some work with the estrogen receptors, others act as powerful anti-oxidants or inhibit enzymatic processes.

WHAT ARE TERPENES AND TERPENOIDS?

Terpenes occur naturally in abundance in humans, plants and animals, often to ward off parasites. Like flavonoids, terpenes also give off a strong smell and taste. Terpenes are fading molecules that evaporate quickly and contribute to the aroma of the buds. Research has shown that terpenes are psychoactive and contribute to the overall effect of a species. The effects are extensive: Narcotic, reducing anxiety, anti-inflammatory and much more. Surprisingly, up to 30% of cannabis consists of smoke from terpenes and terpenoids.

The difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are simple hydrocarbons, while terpenoids consist of additional functional groups. In nature, simple hydrocarbons such as terpenes are often the building blocks for larger and more complex molecules, such as steroids, pigments and vitamins. In cannabis, terpenes and THC share a biochemical precursor, geranyl pyrophosphate, which develops in the resin glands of the plant and then evolves into cannabinoids and terpenes.

Like many other fragrant plants and flowers, cannabis develops those terpenes to attract useful insects and fend off enemies. Many factors, such as the climate, weather conditions, maturity of the plant, used fertilizers, the type of soil in which the plant grows and even the time of day affect the development of terpenes.

The enormous variation in aromas in cannabis plants is already impressive, but the most fascinating feature of terpenes is their ability to cooperate with other active ingredients in the plant. Terpenes can adjust the amount of THC traveling through the blood-brain barrier. But their influence even extends to the regulation of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, which adjust the production and decomposition speed, their movement and availability for receptors.

Although more than 100 different terpenes and terpenoids have been recognized in cannabis, we go deeper into some of the most prominent. Below is a short list of terpenes, their scent and medical benefits.

  • Borneol
  • Careen
  • Caryophylleen
  • Eucalyptol
  • Limoneen
  • Myrceen
  • Pineen
  • Terpineol

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